Today 85 million people inhabit the drainage area of the Baltic Sea. A mix of land-based human activities, including agricultural, industrial, and urban activities, exert a wide variety of pressures on the sea.

Photo: Cezary Korkosz
What are the issues?
0 out of 20

pressure-based core indicator components do not reach good status in any assessed area.

0 out of 20

pressure-based core indicator components show good status in all assessed areas.

A special concern is the large area with low oxygen or no oxygen at all in the deep basins of the central Baltic Sea.

NOTE
This website contains the 2018 updated version of the State of the Baltic Sea report. For the first version of the report and other materials, please see the HOLAS II - First version workspace on HELCOM's website.

Today 85 million people inhabit the drainage area of the Baltic Sea. The sea is one of the world’s largest brackish water areas and is inhabited by both marine and freshwater species. A mix of land-based human activities, including agricultural, industrial, and urban activities, exert a wide variety of pressures on the sea. The sea itself experiences busy shipping between its surrounding countries and is an important or emerging resource for fishing, fish-farming, gravel extraction and wind energy, to name a few, and is being used for leisure and tourism. Some of the pressures on the Baltic Sea are exacerbated by the limited level of water exchange, which means that nutrients and other substances from the drainage area accumulate in the Baltic Sea and are only diluted slowly. HELCOM has identified seven distinct pressures, which are assessed in this chapter: